Rick Ayers from ESRI sent me the attached note (inst.doc) that explains how to download redistricting data at the geographic detail of County - census blocks from the ESRI website at:
www.geographynetwork.com. For those who want to convert Census data into ESRI shapefiles, I think the method Rick describes is easier to use than the one I wrote down to this listserve a while ago.
Claritas Inc. is also making Census data available for free downloads from their website at:
>From Census2000 <Census2000(a)ccmc.org>
October 18, 2001
Census Bureau Says No To Adjustment;
Review Finds Duplicates Wipe Out Most of Net Undercount
Plus: Academy Panel Issues Report on Census 2000;
Upcoming Advisory Committee Meetings; and more.
The Census Bureau announced yesterday that it would not adjust Census
2000 data for non-political purposes, such as allocating federal program
funds, citing a larger number of previously unidentified duplicates that
reduced the net national undercount to "virtually zero in statistical
terms." At a press conference in Washington, DC, Acting Bureau Director
William Barron said he "concurred with and approved" the recommendation
of the Executive Steering Committee for Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation
Policy (ESCAP), which transmitted a report to him earlier this week,
that unadjusted data should be used for non-redistricting purposes. He
also said it would have been "a terrible mistake" to adjust the census
counts issued to the states for redistricting last winter, based on the
The bureau said that evaluation of "considerable new evidence" revealed
that the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) survey did not
measure "a significant number" of double-counts and other counting
mistakes (collectively called "erroneous enumerations"). As a result,
the ESCAP found, the A.C.E. overstated the net national undercount by
about three million people. The committee reported earlier this year
that 3.1 million people were counted twice and an estimated 6.4 million
people were missed in Census 2000, for a net national undercount of 3.3
million. The net undercount is the difference between the number of
people counted twice or in the wrong place and the number of people
missed, as measured by the post-census survey.
The bureau issued preliminary revised undercount estimates that take
into account the newly identified duplicates, bringing the net
undercount down to 0.06 percent from the 1.18 percent reported last
March. Higher proportions of racial minorities and Hispanics than
Whites were missed in the census, although the gaps were smaller than in
1990. The revised undercount for the Black (non-Hispanic) population is
0.78 percent, compared to the 2.17 percent originally reported; the
Hispanic undercount was lowered from 2.85 percent to 1.25 percent. The
revised estimate for Whites and all other groups showed a small
overcount of 0.28 percent, compared to an initial net undercount
estimate of 0.73 percent. The 1990 census had a net national undercount
of 1.6 percent, based on a similar though smaller quality-check survey.
The ESCAP noted that the "net undercount remains disproportionately
distributed among renters and minority populations." The committee said
that further research might result in further revised estimates of
undercounting or overcounting that could be used to improve the accuracy
of the annual population estimates, particularly for harder-to-count
At the press conference, Mr. Barron said the Census Bureau must start
planning now for the 2010 census. He said he did not believe the bureau
could ever complete an Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation program similar
to the one fielded in 2000, in time to adjust the detailed census
numbers issued to the states for redistricting within a year after
Congressman Dan Miller (R-FL), chairman of the Subcommittee on the
Census, applauded the Census Bureau for "[choosing] the count that
accurately shows real people, living in real neighborhoods and
communities in a very real nation. We now know with scientific
certainty, that a virtual census would have been less accurate than a
real count." Referencing the Commerce Department's decision not to
adjust the 1990 census based on a similar post-census survey, the
chairman said, "We should give up on this twice failed experiment and
put this money into improving the real count in 2010."
Congressman William "Lacy" Clay (D-MO), the subcommittee's senior
Democrat, called the bureau's decision "disappointing and troubling."
He said the revised undercount estimates "do not allay the concerns of
cities and communities seeking their fair share of funds for critical
services. Despite many successes, Census 2000 still missed a lot of
people in our poorer neighborhoods." Congressman Clay called on the
bureau to release the adjusted numbers to assess the count's accuracy at
the local level.
Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney (D-NY), a subcommittee member, said the
Census Bureau's decision "gave us more questions than answers,"
including why the bureau "conduct[ed] a search for duplicates but not
conduct a search for omissions." She called on the Bush Administration
to publicly release the adjusted data. Mr. Barron's statement and the
ESCAP report are available through the Census Bureau's web site at
National Academy of Sciences panel evaluates Census 2000: The National
Research Council (NRC), an arm of the National Academy of Sciences, has
issued a new report, "The 2000 Census: Interim Assessment." The Panel
to Review the 2000 Census, chaired by former Bureau of Labor Statistics
Commissioner Janet Norwood, assessed Census 2000 operations, including
the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) program and statistical
imputation methods, based on information available through August 2001.
The expert panel said Census 2000 was "well executed in many respects,"
and that adequate funding helped to keep operations on schedule. It
called the A.C.E. program, designed to measure the net undercount (or
overcount) in the census, "well planned and documented... and
[generally] well executed." The panel did not offer an opinion on
whether Census 2000 data should be adjusted based on the A.C.E., but
concluded that the Census Bureau followed its plan for evaluating the
census and A.C.E. results, and that the recommendation last March to
release unadjusted numbers for redistricting purposes "was justifiable."
Imputation, a statistical procedure used to count people about whom the
Census Bureau has incomplete or no direct information, was largely
responsible for the lower net undercount in 2000, the panel said.
According to the report, the 2000 census included 5.8 million imputed
people, three times the number imputed in the 1990 census. A
disproportionate number of imputed persons were minorities, renters, and
children, the panel found, "thus accounting in large part for the
reduction in differential net undercount for these groups, relative to
non-Hispanic whites, owners, and older people." The State of Utah has
challenged the use of imputation in federal court, contending that the
Census Act and the U.S. Constitution prohibit the use of statistical
methods to compile the state population totals for congressional
The panel also questioned the accuracy of the Census Bureau's
independent population benchmark, compiled from administrative data such
as birth, death, Medicare, and immigration records. The Demographic
Analysis estimate of 279.6 million was lower than the raw census count
(281.4 million) for the first time, and about 5 million below the
A.C.E.-adjusted population estimate of 284.7 million. Focusing on the
bureau's methods for gauging immigration and emigration, the Academy
panel concluded that "demographic analysis should not be used as a
standard for evaluation [of census accuracy] at this time." The Census
Bureau had cited the discrepancy between the three measurements as a
primary factor in its recommendation against releasing adjusted census
data last March. Federal agencies and outside experts should research
improved methods for estimating legal and undocumented immigration, the
The panel singled out four successful innovations in Census 2000:
contracting for data processing, with better technology to 'capture'
responses on the forms; simplified questionnaires and a direct mail
strategy to encourage response; the paid advertising campaign and
expanded outreach; and aggressive recruitment of census takers. The
higher-than-expected mail response rate -- about the same as in 1990 -
was "an important achievement," the panel said, although areas with low
mail-back rates in 1990 had similarly low response in 2000. The report
also noted the "marked decline" in the mail-back rate for the census
long form, which the panel cautioned could affect the quality of those
The NRC report expressed concern about the quality of the count of
people in so-called "group quarters," such as college dorms, prisons,
and nursing homes. The panel also recommended further evaluation of
procedures to build the national address list (called the "Master
Address File," or MAF), to determine if the Local Update of Census
Addresses (LUCA) program improved the accuracy of the MAF. While it
made sense to seek address information from local and Tribal governments
and the U.S. Postal Service, the panel said, "there were problems in
execution that may have increased duplicate and erroneous enumerations."
The National Research Council is part of the National Academy of
Sciences. The report is available through the Internet at
Appropriations (funding) update: Congress is expected to pass a third
"Continuing Resolution" to keep federal agencies running at fiscal year
2001 funding levels until lawmakers enact spending bills for fiscal year
2002, which started on October 1st. The new Continuing Resolution will
run through October 31.
Census Advisory Committee meetings: The Decennial Census Advisory
Committee will meet on November 5 - 6, and the five Race and Ethnic
Advisory Committees will meet on November 7 - 9, to discuss Census 2000
evaluations (including the ESCAP's work), planning for the 2010 census,
the status of the American Community Survey, the findings of the
National Academy of Sciences' Panel to Review the 2000 Census, the
expanded Census Information Center program, and other relevant issues.
Both meetings will take place at the Hilton Alexandria Mark Center
Hotel, 5000 Seminary Road, Alexandria, VA (703-845-1010). The sessions
are open to the public.
New Census 2000 evaluations: The U.S. General Accounting Office, the
audit and investigative arm of Congress, has issued two evaluations of
Census 2000 operations and management. The reports, "2000 Census:
Review of Partnership Program Highlights Best Practices for Future
Operations (GAO-01-579, Aug. 20, 2001)" and "2000 Census: Better
Productivity Data Needed for Future Planning and Budgeting (GAO-02-4,
Oct. 4, 2001)," are available through GAO's web site at www.gao.gov
<http://www.gao.gov> or by calling 202-512-6000 (TDD/202-512-2537).
Questions about the information contained in this News Alert may be
directed to Terri Ann Lowenthal at 202/484-2270 or, by e-mail at
<mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org>. For copies of previous News Alerts and
other information, use our web site www.census2000.org
<http://www.census2000.org>. Please direct all requests to receive News
Alerts, and all changes in address/phone/fax/e-mail, to the Census 2000
Initiative at <mailto:Census2000@ccmc.org> or 202/326-8700. Please feel
free to circulate this information to colleagues and other interested
Nanda, what are the implications for my CTPP package if the Census Bureau changed, added and split RI's census tracks? Our TAZ's are based on tracks and block groups.
Michael Moan, RI Statewide Planning (MPO).
Recently, Elaine Murakami, FHWA and Nanda Srinivasan, Cambridge
Systematics Inc., developed a transportation focused power point
presentation using the C2SS data. They have passed the presentation
along and it is now posted on the TRB Subcommittee on Census Data
In addition to the powerpoint presentation are some "dot" points that
several of us developed when the C2SS data first came out in August.
The C2SS was a survey of 700K households designed to test the
operational feasibility of collecting long form-type data
simultaneously, but separately, from a decennial census. The first wave
of C2SS data was released at the statewide level in August 2001.
Additional data for most cities and counties of 250,000 or more people
are scheduled for release in the fall 2001, and winter 2002.
The Census Bureau has now made available the Census 2000 TIGER/Line files
and the Census 2000 Tract Relationship files. All files are now available.
This includes the first release of the Census 2000 TIGER/Line files for the
Island areas (American Samoa, Guam, Midway Islands, Northern Mariana
Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). These files will be available for
purchase from the Census Bureau either on DVD (1 disk) or CD-ROM (7 disks).
Both the DVD and the CD-ROMs will be created as "one-off" copies as they are
The Census 2000 TIGER/Line files may be downloaded from:
Please be aware that there are some differences between this version and the
Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files. This is the version that
contains the ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) and the address ranges based
upon the final Census 2000 Master Address File. It also contains the
correct boundaries for the Congressional Districts for the 106th Congress.
contains a description of all the corrections that were made to the Census
2000 TIGER/Line files from the Redistricting version.
The Census 2000 Tract Relationship files may be downloaded from:
If you have any questions, please send them to:
U. S. Census Bureau
Date:Wed, 3 Oct 2001
Census Bureau Facing Second Decision on Whether to Recommend Use of
Plus: Census Monitoring Board Disbands; Census Funding Update;
Report on Counting Americans Living Abroad; and more.
The Census Bureau continued its evaluations of Census 2000 and the
Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) program as it moves closer
to a self-imposed mid-October deadline for recommending whether
adjusted census data should be used for purposes other than
redistricting, such as the allocation of federal grants and federal
survey controls. The A.C.E. program included a quality-check, 'post
enumeration' survey of 314,000 households, designed to assess the
number of people missed and double-counted in the census.
In a letter last month to Democratic congressional overseers, Acting
Census Bureau Director William Barron said that a decision to adjust
the census data must be "made on solid technical grounds" and meet
"pre-specified criteria" for gauging the relatively accuracy of the
raw and A.C.E.-adjusted numbers. The Census Bureau still hopes to
finish its evaluation of census accuracy by October 15. If it
cannot meet that deadline, it would then complete its analysis by
the fall of 2002, a schedule Mr. Barron said paralleled the
timetable for deciding whether to adjust the 1990 census for the
purpose of distributing federal funds and setting benchmarks for
federal surveys. The bureau does not plan to release adjusted
numbers publicly until that decision is made.
Last March, Secretary of Commerce Donald Evans agreed with a bureau
recommendation not to release statistically adjusted census numbers,
citing discrepancies between the A.C.E.'s measurement of the
population, the raw census counts, and an independent benchmark of
the national population derived from "demographic analysis." Bureau
experts said they did not have enough time to evaluate the
differences between the three measures. The Secretary was required
by law to transmit block-level population counts to the states for
redrawing political district boundaries, by March 31, 2001. The
bureau also raised questions about technical aspects of the
adjustment process. At the time, the agency said it would continue
to evaluate the results of the census and the A.C.E. program, to
determine if the adjusted numbers were more accurate for uses such
as doling out roughly $200 billion in federal funds annually to
states and localities. The bureau subsequently described its
research agenda in an August 7th memorandum.
In his September 21 letter, Mr. Barron also said he was "troubled"
that some legislators use the term "corrected data" to refer to
statistically adjusted numbers, a description he called "misleading
and inappropriate." The term might suggest, Mr. Barron wrote, "that
one data set is error free, rather than improved (the latter being
the best that the [adjustment methodology] could ever be used to
achieve)." The director acknowledged that the bureau itself had
used the term "corrected" in the past to describe the adjusted
Mr. Barron emphasized that the adjustment process was designed to
assess "net error" for different population subgroups, not "gross
error" in the census. "Net error" refers to the difference between
the number of people missed (undercount, or omissions) and the
number counted twice (overcount, or duplications). "Gross error"
combines various kinds of mistakes in the census, including people
missed or counted twice, people counted in the wrong place, and
fictitious people. The bureau looks at the net error for population
subgroups in deciding whether a statistical adjustment would improve
the accuracy of the census, the director said. Nationally, the
bureau reported a net undercount of 3.3 million people based on the
A.C.E. survey. The quality-check survey also revealed that 3.1
million people were counted twice or made up ("gross erroneous
enumerations"), a measure that allowed the bureau to estimate the
number of people missed in the census at 6.4 million people ("gross
omissions"), for a minimum of 9.5 million miscounts.
Legal update: Several lawsuits challenging the Commerce Secretary's
decision not to release statistically adjusted census data to the
states for redistricting purposes continue to wind their way through
the federal courts. In Oregon, the U.S. District Court will hear
arguments on October 18 in a case filed by two state legislators
last June, seeking release of the adjusted population numbers under
the Freedom of Information Act.
Los Angeles and other counties and cities are pursuing their appeal
of a district court judge's dismissal of their lawsuit challenging
the legality of Secretary Evans' decision to release only unadjusted
census data. In April, U.S. District Court Judge Gary Feess ruled
that the Secretary based his decision on sufficient evidence that
the raw census numbers were the most accurate available, thereby
meeting the objectives of the Census Act (title 13, United States
Code). Los Angeles asked the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals to
review the dismissal of its claim, and filed its opening brief last
month. The Commerce Department (represented by the U.S. Department
of Justice) has until October 10 to submit its response. A hearing
date has not been set.
Census Monitoring Board sunsets: The U.S. Census Monitoring Board,
created by Congress in late 1997 to oversee planning for and
implementation of Census 2000, closed its doors on September 30,
when its statutory authority expired. The bipartisan board was
comprised of four members appointed by President Bill Clinton with
advice from Democratic leaders in Congress (called the Presidential
members), and four members appointed by Republican congressional
leaders (called the Congressional members). The panel had co-chairs
(one Republican and one Democrat) and two executive directors,
maintained separate offices at Census Bureau headquarters, and
sometimes issued separate reports to Congress. The Presidential and
Congressional members issued separate final reports that include
recommendations for future census methods and operations.
The Presidential members offered 18 recommendations that "will serve
as a useful roadmap for 2010," co-chair Gilbert Casellas said in a
written statement. Suggestions include: set a fixed term of office
for the Census Bureau director, who currently serves at the pleasure
of the President; retain a national advertising campaign, local and
community-based partnerships, and a quality-check, 'post enumeration
survey' in the 2010 census; reach a consensus on methods earlier in
the decade; examine the effect of the Local Update of Census
Addresses (LUCA) program on accuracy; and use 'gross' rather than
'net' error as the primary yardstick of census accuracy. Mr.
Casellas noted that despite operational successes in Census 2000,
"the differential undercount, while reduced, remains," referring to
the historically disproportionate undercount of racial minorities.
"The undercount not only hampers Congress in its ability to direct
federal funds to place where they are needed, but it also denies to
taxpayers the right to have their money come back to their
communities in the form of Federal program funds. ...[T]he use of
statistically adjusted numbers would have made a difference in
people's lives," the co-chairman said. In the their report, the
Presidential members also summarized the briefings, hearings, and
studies they conducted during the Board's tenure.
The Congressional members issued a Summary Report to Congress on
September 1, and also prepared a separate analysis of the Census
2000 Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation process (not yet printed).
The summary identifies several elements of Census 2000 that the
Congressional appointees said contributed to a successful census,
including the partnership and advertising programs; using
competitive and variable pay rates to attract and retain qualified
workers; pre-census local government review of address lists (the
LUCA program); and allowing regional directors to adapt census
procedures to local conditions. The report also concludes that
census "can be more accurate and more inclusive," statistical
adjustment would not "completely eliminate" the differential and net
undercounts. The bureau instead should "focus on methods that will
work to reduce the actual undercount in the census and to actually
help empower the hardest-to-count neighborhoods." The Congressional
members offered six recommendations for improving future censuses,
including mailing Spanish-language questionnaires to selected
neighborhoods, eliminating the long form, and reinstating a "Post
Census Local Review" similar to a 1990 operation that allowed local
officials to examine their preliminary housing unit counts before
the numbers were finalized.
Describing their analysis of the A.C.E. process, Congressional
Member Co-Chair A. Mark Neuman said, "[C]ontrary to popular belief,
people missed in the Census don't get put back in the neighborhoods
where they really live. Severely undercounted neighborhoods ...will
remain severely undercounted. Statistical adjustment doesn't fix
The final report of the Presidential members is available through
their Web site at www.cmbp.gov <http://www.cmbp.gov>. The
Congressional members' final reports are posted on their Web site at
www.cmbc.gov <http://www.cmbc.gov>. [Note: Both Internet sites will
be accessible for some period of time.]
Appropriations (funding) update: The U.S. Senate approved its
version of the Commerce Department's fiscal year 2002 spending bill
(S. 1215), which includes funds for the Census Bureau, on September
13, sending the bill to a conference committee that will iron out
differences with the House-passed version (H.R. 2500). The Senate
Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary and Related Agencies
Appropriations bill allocates $517.1 million for Census Bureau
activities. While the total amount is $26.3 million below the Bush
Administration's budget request, appropriators assumed that a $27
million carry-over in the bureau's accounts from prior years would
cover the difference.
The Senate-passed bill includes $26.2 million - roughly $1 million
below the request -- for continued development and testing of the
American Community Survey (ACS) at 31 sites around the country.
Funding for the Periodic Censuses and Programs account (one of two
broad Census Bureau accounts) also covers continued dissemination of
Census 2000 data products and Census 2000 evaluations, as well as
2010 census planning activities. The Census 2000 Supplementary
Survey (C2SS), a demonstration of the ACS on a national scale, is
part of the bureau's 2010 census strategic planning effort.
The following senators, all members of the Appropriations Committee,
were appointed to the conference committee: Sens. Ernest Hollings
(D-SC), Daniel Inouye (D-HI), Barbara Mikulski (D-MD), Patrick Leahy
(D-VT), Herbert Kohl (D-WI), Patty Murray (D-WA), Jack Reed (D-RI),
Robert Byrd (D-WV), Judd Gregg (R-NH), Ted Stevens (R-AK), Pete
Domenici (R-NM), Mitch McConnell (R-KY), Kay Bailey Hutchison
(R-TX), Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-CO), and Thad Cochran (R-MS).
The House of Representatives, which approved its Commerce
appropriations bill in July, appointed the following appropriations
committee members as conferees: Reps. Frank Wolf (R-VA), Harold
Rogers (R-KY), Jim Kolbe (R-AZ), Charles Taylor (R-NC), Ralph Regula
(R-OH), Tom Latham (R-IA), Dan Miller (R-FL), David Vitter (R-LA),
C.W. Young (R-FL), Jose Serrano (D-NY), Alan Mollohan (D-WV),
Lucille Roybal-Allard (D-CA), Robert Cramer Jr. (D-AL), Patrick
Kennedy (D-RI), and David Obey (D-WI).
Fiscal year 2002 started on October 1st. Last week, Congress passed
and the President signed a so-called Continuing Resolution, which
continues funding for all federal agencies and programs at fiscal
year 2001 levels through October 16, giving lawmakers more time to
enact new spending bills.
Counting Americans abroad in the census: As directed last year by
congressional appropriators, the Census Bureau has submitted a
report to Congress on the feasibility of counting private American
citizens living abroad in the decennial census. In Census 2000,
members of the armed forces and civilian government personnel
stationed outside of the U.S. during the census were included in the
state population totals used to apportion seats in the House of
Representatives among the 50 states. Private citizens living in
foreign countries have never been counted in the census.
In its report, the Census Bureau examined policy, conceptual, and
methodological issues associated with such a count. It said "prompt
resolution" of key policy issues, such as whether a count of
Americans abroad would be used for informational purposes only or
for congressional apportionment and redistricting and the allocation
of federal funds, was a "precondition" for undertaking research into
the methods for an overseas enumeration. Collecting data for
political and funding purposes, the bureau said, would "present very
formidable challenges." Other key policy questions cited in the
report include the implications of voluntary response from Americans
abroad, which the bureau said is inevitable, in light of the census'
mandatory nature, and determining a "usual residence" for people not
living in the U.S., the standard used in counting stateside
The report also raises questions about who would be included in an
overseas count (i.e. people born in the U.S.; citizens who intend to
return to the U.S.; those with proof of citizenship); how to assign
Americans abroad to a 'home state' and possibly a specific address;
and whether to conduct the count using "self-enumeration,"
administrative records, or both.
To address overarching policy, as well as technical, concerns, the
bureau said it would hold a conference in November 2001 to hear the
views of Congress and other external stakeholders. If it decides to
include private American citizens living abroad in the 2010 census,
the bureau would assess proposed methods as part of scheduled census
tests in 2004 and 2006 and the2008 dress rehearsal.
Congressional update: The House Subcommittee on the Census,
established in 1998 as part of the Committee on Government Reform to
authorize and oversee Census Bureau activities, will be eliminated
at the end of 2001. House Republican leaders announced the move
earlier this year as a cost-saving measure.
Subcommittee Staff Director Chip Walker told participants at the
September quarterly meeting of the Council of Professional
Associations in Federal Statistics (COPAFS) that the panel's
responsibilities would be transferred to the Subcommittee on Civil
Service and Agency Organization. That subcommittee's current
chairman, Rep. Joe Scarborough (R-FL), is giving up his
congressional seat this month to spend more time with his family.
Government Reform Committee member Rep. Dave Weldon (R-FL) is
expected to take over as chairman of the Civil Service panel, Mr.
Walker reported. Prior to a major House committee reorganization in
1995, the former Subcommittee on Census and Population was part of
the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. The current census
subcommittee chairman, Rep. Dan Miller (R-FL), announced that he
would retire at the end of the 107th Congress in 2002.
Condolences: It is with great sadness that the Census 2000
Initiative shares with census stakeholders the following information
from Acting Census Bureau Director Barron, concerning the loss of
two Census Bureau employees from the New York Regional Office during
the September 11 terrorist attacks. Marion Britton, Assistant
Regional Director, and Waleska Martinez, Automation Specialist, were
both on United Flight 93 that crashed near Pittsburgh, traveling on
official business. We extend our deepest sympathy to their families
and to their Census Bureau colleagues.
Questions about the information contained in this News Alert may be
directed to Terri Ann Lowenthal at 202/484-2270 or, by e-mail at
<mailto:email@example.com>. For copies of previous News Alerts and
other information, use our web site www.census2000.org
<http://www.census2000.org>. Please direct all requests to receive
News Alerts, and all changes in address/phone/fax/e-mail, to the
Census 2000 Initiative at <mailto:Census2000@ccmc.org> or
202/326-8700. Please feel free to circulate this information to
colleagues and other interested individuals.